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Industrial sector

The industrial sector uses about 50% of the total commercial energy available in India. Of the commercial sources of energy, coal, lignite, and oil and natural gas are mainly used. The Indian energy sector is highly energy intensive and efficiency is well below that of other industrialized countries. Efforts are made on a regular basis to promote energy conservation in these countries as this will help reduce the cost of production.

There is considerable scope for improving energy efficiency in industries dealing with iron and steel, chemicals, cement, pulp and paper, fertilizers, textiles, etc. If such industries can promote energy conservation, it could lead to substantial reduction in their costs of production.

Energy management is very important as all well-planned actions can help reduce an organization’s energy bills and minimize the damage it does to the environment. The two main energy management strategies are conservation and efficiency. This requires the establishment of a system of collection, analysis, and reporting on the organization’s energy consumption and costs.

In the industrial sector, the major consumers of energy are fertilizer, textile, sugar, cement, and steel. It has been estimated that the total conservation potential of this sector is around 25% of the total energy used by it.
   

bullet.gif (62 bytes)Conservation initiatives
bullet.gif (62 bytes)Conservation of energy in different industrial equipment/applications
bullet.gif (62 bytes)What the industries should do  
bullet.gif (62 bytes)Lighting options
 

Conservation initiatives

Waste heat recovery systems, cogeneration, and the utilization of alternative sources of energy are also important for the conservation of energy.

Technology, upgradation, modernization, and the introduction of control instrumentation are necessary to realize the full potential of energy conservation in industry.

To motivate the industrial sector to take up energy conservation seriously, the government has from time to time introduced fiscal incentives such as cut on import duty for specific items. Effectively from 1983 certain tax benefits have been given to energy-saving devices and systems in the industrial sector such as cogeneration systems, power factor correcting devices, and specialized boilers and furnaces.

The coal industry is both a source of energy and a consumer of energy. Energy can be conserved in both these areas. Coal reserves can be conserved through proper methods of exploration, improved recovery, and introduction of new mining technologies.

Hydrocarbons continue to be the major source of energy. The conservation of this form of energy is essential as it will reduce environmental pollution.

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Conservation of energy in different industrial equipment/applications

bullet.gif (62 bytes) Boilers are used in various industrial units to convey heat for different process applications. Though boilers can be categorized into different types and have different efficiency levels, the motive of the industry should be to generate the required quantity and quality of steam at minimum cost. An optimum level of excess air level should be maintained. The method of return steam condensate to the boiler helps reduce fuel consumption, along with this method various other methods could be applied to minimize the loss of energy.
        
bullet.gif (62 bytes) Steam plays an important part in the chemical plants for process heating and turbine drives. The rising cost of fuel has made it necessary to adopt measures to reduce energy losses in the steam distribution network. The insulation should be kept in good condition, all valves and other parts of the system should be constantly checked. Condensation recovery in the steam system is very important. When steam condenses, it transfers about 75% of the heat content to the process and the remaining is withheld in the condensed water. It is very important to install a good condensate recovery system to collect the condensate from the process.
            
bullet.gif (62 bytes) Compressed air is used in almost all types of industries and accounts for a major share of the electricity used in some of the plants. It is utilized for a variety of end-uses such as pneumatic tools and equipment, instrumentation, conveying, etc. and is preferred in industries because it is more convenient and safe. The compressor is the main component of this system and its selection must be done carefully. Leakage points have to be identified and sealed, and proper pressure has to be maintained.
                
bullet.gif (62 bytes) Refrigeration is done by various methods such as the vapour compression system, absorption system, and the steam jet system. An air conditioning and a refrigeration plant are efficient when all the system components, i.e. the compressor, the condenser, the evaporator, the cooling tower, etc., are working in matching condition. Other than the servicing of the components and their maintenance, care should be taken to ensure that the outdoor air is kept at a minimum.
             
bullet.gif (62 bytes) Most of the industrial processes in and out of plants involve transportation of fluids and the pump is the mechanical equipment that is used to facilitate this movement. It can be operated either through a diesel engine, an electric motor, or a gas or steam turbine. All these consume energy either in the form of electric power or petroleum products like diesel, oil, or gas. The pumps have to be well maintained and under constant supervision.
        
bullet.gif (62 bytes) Of the total electricity consumed in the industrial sector, electric motors account for approximately 70%. These motors are classified under DC (direct current) and AC (alternative current). Electricity consumption in these motors can be reduced if the cooling is improved along with the controls, if they are operated at the rated voltage, and are regularly maintained. The new energy-efficient motors have better performance as they have incorporated design improvement to reduce energy loss.
       
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What the industries should do  

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They must try to improve the existing systems of their equipment and units and increase efficiency. This can be done through energy audits.
     

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Attention should move from existing sources of energy to the new renewable sources. For instance, the sugar industry can start using the bagasse to generate power–a large number of sugar mills in the country are already using power generated from this residue.
         

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Housekeeping methods should be improved by maintaining the systems as per the laid down norms
          

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New technologies with state-of-the-art machines, new processes, etc. which will help in saving energy have to be introduced. Good examples of this are the dry process as against the wet process in the cement industry. Another is the electric arc furnace versus the conventional method of steel production.
         
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Lighting options

A good supply of light does not necessarily mean the consumption of a great deal of energy. If the right lamp is selected for the right type of function, it is possible to save energy. There are four basic types of lighting: incandescent, fluorescent, high intensity discharge, and low pressure sodium.

Incandescent lamps are the least expensive to buy but are the most expensive to operate. They have the shortest lives and are inefficient compared with other lighting types.

Fluorescent lighting is used mainly indoors and is about three to four times as efficient as incandescent lighting. They last about ten times longer than the incandescent types.

Compact fluorescent lamps or CFL are the most significant lighting devices developed for homes in recent years. They combine the efficiency of fluorescent lighting with the convenience and popularity of the incandescent fixtures. They can replace incandescent ones that are roughly three to four times their wattage, saving up to 70% of the initial lighting energy. Although these bulbs cost ten to twenty times more than the ordinary bulbs they last ten to fifteen times as much. In fact all this makes it the most energy efficient option for the purpose of lighting.

High intensity discharge lamps or the HID provide the longest service life and the highest quality of any lighting type. They are commonly used for outdoor lighting and in large indoor areas. These lamps and fixtures can save 70%–90% of lighting energy when they replace incandescent ones. The three most common types of HID lamps are the mercury vapour, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamps.

Low pressure sodium lamps are the most efficient artificial lighting, having the longest service life, and maintain their light output better than any other lamp type. They work in some ways like fluorescent lights and is used where colour is not so important. Its typical applications include highways and security lighting.
   

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