sector uses about 50% of the total commercial energy
available in India. Of the commercial sources of energy, coal, lignite, and oil and
natural gas are mainly used. The Indian energy sector is highly energy intensive and
efficiency is well below that of other industrialized countries. Efforts are made on a
regular basis to promote energy conservation in these countries as this will help reduce
the cost of production.
There is considerable scope
for improving energy efficiency in industries dealing with iron and steel, chemicals,
cement, pulp and paper, fertilizers, textiles, etc. If such industries can promote energy
conservation, it could lead to substantial reduction in their costs of production.
Energy management is very
important as all well-planned actions can help reduce an organizations energy bills
and minimize the damage it does to the environment. The two main energy management
strategies are conservation and efficiency. This requires the establishment of a system of
collection, analysis, and reporting on the organizations energy consumption and
In the industrial sector, the
major consumers of energy are fertilizer, textile, sugar, cement, and steel. It has been
estimated that the total conservation potential of this sector is around 25% of
the total energy used by it.
Conservation of energy in
different industrial equipment/applications
What the industries should do
Waste heat recovery systems,
cogeneration, and the utilization of alternative sources of energy are also important for
the conservation of energy.
modernization, and the introduction of control instrumentation are necessary to realize
the full potential of energy conservation in industry.
To motivate the industrial
sector to take up energy conservation seriously, the government has from time to time
introduced fiscal incentives such as cut on import duty for specific items. Effectively
from 1983 certain tax benefits have been given to energy-saving devices and systems in the
industrial sector such as cogeneration systems, power factor correcting devices, and
specialized boilers and furnaces.
The coal industry is both a
source of energy and a consumer of energy. Energy can be conserved in both these areas.
Coal reserves can be conserved through proper methods of exploration, improved recovery,
and introduction of new mining technologies.
Hydrocarbons continue to be
the major source of energy. The conservation of this form of energy is essential as it
will reduce environmental pollution.
Conservation of energy in different industrial equipment/applications
used in various industrial units to convey heat for different process applications. Though
boilers can be categorized into different types and have different efficiency levels, the
motive of the industry should be to generate the required quantity and quality of steam at
minimum cost. An optimum level of excess air level should be maintained. The method of
return steam condensate to the boiler helps reduce fuel consumption, along with this
method various other methods could be applied to minimize the loss of energy.
an important part in the chemical plants for process heating and turbine drives. The
rising cost of fuel has made it necessary to adopt measures to reduce energy losses in the
steam distribution network. The insulation should be kept in good condition, all valves
and other parts of the system should be constantly checked. Condensation recovery in the
steam system is very important. When steam condenses, it transfers about 75% of the heat
content to the process and the remaining is withheld in the condensed water. It is very
important to install a good condensate recovery system to collect the condensate from the
is used in almost all types of industries and accounts for a major share of the
electricity used in some of the plants. It is utilized for a variety of end-uses such as
pneumatic tools and equipment, instrumentation, conveying, etc. and is preferred in
industries because it is more convenient and safe. The compressor is the main component of
this system and its selection must be done carefully. Leakage points have to be identified
and sealed, and proper pressure has to be maintained.
is done by various methods such as the vapour compression system, absorption system, and
the steam jet system. An air conditioning and a refrigeration plant are efficient when all
the system components, i.e. the compressor, the condenser, the evaporator, the cooling
tower, etc., are working in matching condition. Other than the servicing of the components
and their maintenance, care should be taken to ensure that the outdoor air is kept at a
||Most of the industrial
processes in and out of plants involve transportation of fluids and the pump
is the mechanical equipment that is used to facilitate this movement. It can be operated
either through a diesel engine, an electric motor, or a gas or steam turbine. All these
consume energy either in the form of electric power or petroleum products like diesel,
oil, or gas. The pumps have to be well maintained and under constant supervision.
||Of the total electricity
consumed in the industrial sector, electric motors account for
approximately 70%. These motors are classified under DC (direct current) and AC
(alternative current). Electricity consumption in these motors can be reduced if the
cooling is improved along with the controls, if they are operated at the rated voltage,
and are regularly maintained. The new energy-efficient motors have better performance as
they have incorporated design improvement to reduce energy loss.
the industries should do
||They must try to improve the
existing systems of their equipment and units and increase efficiency. This can be done
through energy audits.
||Attention should move from
existing sources of energy to the new renewable sources. For instance, the sugar industry
can start using the bagasse to generate powera large number of sugar mills in the
country are already using power generated from this residue.
||Housekeeping methods should be
improved by maintaining the systems as per the laid down norms
||New technologies with
state-of-the-art machines, new processes, etc. which will help in saving energy have to be
introduced. Good examples of this are the dry process as against the wet process in the
cement industry. Another is the electric arc furnace versus the conventional method of
A good supply of light does not necessarily mean the consumption of a great deal of
energy. If the right lamp is selected for the right type of function, it is possible to
save energy. There are four basic types of lighting: incandescent, fluorescent, high
intensity discharge, and low pressure sodium.
are the least expensive to buy but are the most expensive to operate. They have the
shortest lives and are inefficient compared with other lighting types.
is used mainly indoors and is about three to four times as efficient as incandescent
lighting. They last about ten times longer than the incandescent types.
lamps or CFL are the most significant lighting devices developed for homes in
recent years. They combine the efficiency of fluorescent lighting with the convenience and
popularity of the incandescent fixtures. They can replace incandescent ones that are
roughly three to four times their wattage, saving up to 70% of the initial lighting
energy. Although these bulbs cost ten to twenty times more than the ordinary bulbs they
last ten to fifteen times as much. In fact all this makes it the most energy efficient
option for the purpose of lighting.
discharge lamps or the HID provide the longest service life and the highest
quality of any lighting type. They are commonly used for outdoor lighting and in large
indoor areas. These lamps and fixtures can save 70%90% of lighting energy when they
replace incandescent ones. The three most common types of HID lamps are the mercury
vapour, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamps.
Low pressure sodium
lamps are the most efficient artificial lighting, having the longest service
life, and maintain their light output better than any other lamp type. They work in some
ways like fluorescent lights and is used where colour is not so important. Its typical
applications include highways and security lighting.
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